Consonants /k/ versus /ʤ/, 183 pairs     [carjar.html]

The spelling of /k/ is <c>, <ck>, <k> or <ch> in ache. The /ʤ/ sound is spelled <j>, <ge> or <dg>.

This is a contrast between a voiceless stop and a voiced affricate, fairly well separated in the mouth. It does not cause many problems, other than for Turkish learners whose spelling system leads them sometimes to pronounce <c> as /ʤ/.

Taboo word pais include coon/June and fuck/fudge.

Interesting pairs include:

colic college
colonel journal
cordon Jordan

The figure for the mean density is 1.5%. The set makes 101 semantic contrasts, a loading of 55%.

ache age
  aching ageing
  ached aged
back badge
  backing badging 
  backed badged
backer badger
  backers badgers
bark barge 
  barking barging
  barked barged
bilk bilge 
brick bridge
  bricking bridging
buck budge
  bucking budging
  bucked budged
Buckie budgie
bulk bulge 
  bulking bulging 
  bulked bulged
cab jab
  cabs jabs
Cairo giro
cake cage 
  caked caged
  caking caging 
cake Jake
cakes jakes
cam jam
  cams jambs
can Jan
cape jape
  capes japes
car jar
  cars jars
card jarred
cause jaws
caw jaw
  cawed jawed
  cawing jawing
  caws jaws
Co Jo
coax jokes
cob job
  cobs jobs
cobber jobber
  cobbers jobbers
cocker codger
  cockers codgers
cocky jockey
cog jog
  cogs jogs
coign join
  coigns joins
coin join
  coins joins
  coined joined
  coining joining
coiner joiner
  coiners joiners
coke joke
  coked joked
  coking joking
  cokes jokes
colic college 
collie jolly
  collies jollies
collier jollier
colonel journal
  colonels journals
colt jolt
  colts jolts
con John 
cone Joan
coney Joanie 
Connie Johnny
coo Jew 
  coos Jews 
cool jewel
  cools jewels
cool joule
  cools joules
coolie Julie 
coon June
  coons Junes 
coot jute
cordon Jordan 
core jaw
  cores jaws
  cored jawed
cot jot
  cots jots
cottar jotter
  cottars jotters
cove Jove 
cowl jowl
  cowls jowls
coy Joy 
cut jut
  cuts juts
  cutting jutting
dirk dirge 
dock dodge
  docking dodging
  docked dodged
docker dodger
  dockers dodgers
Duncan dungeon
fork forge 
  forking forging 
fuck fudge
  fucked fudged
  fucking fudging
gawk gorge
heck hedge
irk urge
  irked urged
  irking urging
K J 
  K's J's 
kail gaol 
kava Java 
keep jeep 
  keeps jeeps 
ken gen
  kenned genned 
  kenning genning 
  kens gens
Kenny Jenny 
Kent gent
kernel journal
  kernels journals
Kerry Gerry 
key G 
  keys G's 
kilt jilt 
  kilts jilts 
kinetic genetic 
  kinetics genetics 
kinks jinks 
kip gyp
  kipped gypped 
kirk jerk 
  kirks jerks 
kissed gist 
lakh large
lock lodge
  locking lodging
  locked lodged
locker lodger
  lockers lodgers
mac Madge 
maker major
  makers majors 
mark Marge
murk merge 
perk purge
  perking purging
  perked purged
quay G
  quays G's
rake rage 
  raking raging 
  raked raged
Redbrick Redbridge
rick ridge
  ricking ridging
  ricked ridged
rocker Roger 
sake sage 
sec sedge
stake stage 
  staking staging 
  staked staged
stock stodge
stocky stodgy
  stockier stodgier
  stockiest stodgiest
truck trudge
wake wage 
  waking waging 
wreck Reg 

John Higgins, Shaftesbury, August 2010
updated Chiang Mai, 2024