Consonants /d/ versus /f/, 402 pairs     [dinefine.html]

The spelling of /d/ in this list is <d> or <dd>. The /f/ sound is spelled <f>, <ff>, <ph> or <gh> in cough. Notice how the homograph does makes pairs with foes and fuzz and the homograph read makes pairs with reef and ref.

The contrast is between a voiced plosive and a voiceless fricative, well separated in the mouth. It is not a problem for learners.

Taboo word pairs include dart/fart and duck/fuck.

The phrase "dual fuel" has become familiar through cookers and domestic heating systems that can use electricity or gas. One pair of arguable status is handle/handful, where the /d/ in handful is elided between the other consonants. Other interesting pairs include:

carded Cardiff
cider cipher
Dallas phallus
digit fidget
doormat format
handle handful
inedible ineffable
liquidize liquefies
odysseys offices
radish raffish
tarried tariff

The mean density value is 2.9%. The list makes 233 semantic distinctions, a loading of 58%.

adore afore
adored afford
aided aphid
allude aloof	 
Auden orphan
bead beef
  beading beefing
  beads beefs
beady beefy
bid biff
  bidding biffing
  bids biffs
blood bluff
  blooding bluffing
  bloods bluffs
breed brief
  breeding briefing
  breeds briefs
breeder briefer
bud buff
  budding buffing
  buds buffs
cad caff
  cads caffs
card calf 
carded Cardiff 
Chard chaff
cider cipher
  ciders ciphers
cod cough
condign confine
creed Crieff 
cud cuff
D fee
  D's fees
dab fab
dace face
dad fad
  dads fads
daddy faddy	 
Dail foil
dairy fairy
  dairies fairies
daisies phases
dale fail
  dales fails
Dallas phallus
dame fame
Dan fan
Dane fain
Dane feign
  Danes feigns
Danny fanny
dare fair
  dares fairs
dare fare
  dared fared
  daring faring
  dares fares
dart fart
  darted farted
  darting farting
  darts farts
date fate
  dates fates
  dated fated
date fête
  dated fêted
  dates fêtes
  dating fêting
daw faugh
daw for
daw fore
daw four
  daws fours
dawn faun
  dawns fauns
dawn fawn
  dawned fawned
  dawning fawning
  dawns fawns
day fey	
days phase
Dayton phaeton
daze phase
  dazed phased
  dazing phasing
  dazes phases
dead deaf
dead fed 
deaden deafen
  deadened deafened
  deadening deafening
  deadens deafens
deal feel
  deals fels
  dealing feeling
  dealings feelings
  deals feels
  dealt felt
dealer feeler
  dealers feelers
dear fear
  dears fears
dearth firth
  dearths firths
deb Feb 
debtor fetter
  debtors fetters
deduce diffuse
deed feed
  deeds feeds
deign fain
deign feign
  deigned feigned
  deigning feigning
  deigns feigns
dell fell
  dells fells
den fen
  dens fens
dense fence
denser fencer 
Derry ferry
Des fez
dew few
DG Fiji
Di fie	
Di phi
dial file
  dials files
dial phial
  dials phials
diary fiery
dibber fibber
  dibbers fibbers
diction fiction
diddle fiddle
  diddled fiddled
  diddles fiddles
  diddling fiddling
die fie	  
die phi
dig fig
  digs figs
digger figure
  diggers figures
digit fidget
  digits fidgets	
Dilys Phyllis
din fin
  dins fins
din Finn 
  dins Finns
dine fine	  
  dined fined
  dining fining
  dines fines
dined find
diner finer
dingle Fingal
dire fire
dish fish
  dishing fishing
  dishes fishes
dishy fishy
  dishier fishier
  dishiest fishiest
dive five
  dives fives
diver fiver
  divers fivers
dixies fixes
dizzies fizzes
dizzy fizzy
  dizzier fizzier
  dizziest fizziest
do foe
docks fox
dodder fodder
doe foe
  does foes
does fuzz
dog fog
  dogging fogging
  dogs fogs
  dogged fogged
doggie foggy
dole foal
  doled foaled
  doles foals
  doling foaling
dolly folly
  dollies follies
dome foam
  domed foamed
  domes foams
donned fond
door faugh
door for
door fore
door four
  doors fours
doorman foreman
  doormen foremen
doormat format
  doormats formats
Dorking forking	
dorm form  
dormant formant
dormer former  
dorsal foresail
Dorset faucet
doss fosse
  dosses fosses
dost fussed
Doug fug
downed found
drank frank 
dread Fred 
drench French 
dray fray
  drays frays
drier friar
  driers friars
drier fryer
  driers fryers
drill frill
  drilled frilled
  drills frills
drivel frivol
  drivelled frivolled
  drivelling frivolling
  drivels frivols
drizzle frizzle
  drizzled frizzled
  drizzles frizzles
  drizzling frizzling
drown frown
  drowned frowned
  drowning frowning
  drowns frowns
drowsy frowzy
dry fry
  dried fried
  drying frying
  dries fries
dual fuel
duck fuck
  ducked fucked
  ducking fucking
  ducks fucks
dude feud
  dudes feuds
due few		
duel fuel
  duelled fuelled
  duelling fuelling
  duels fuels
dues fuse
dug fug
  dugs fugs
dunk funk
  dunked funked
  dunking funking
  dunks funks
dunned fund
durst first
dusty fusty
dyer fire
  dyers fires
Ed F
endorse enforce
  endorsed enforced
  endorsement enforcement
  endorses enforces
  endorsing enforcing
endues infuse
feed feoff
fill dill
flood fluff
  flooding fluffing	   
  floods fluffs
gad gaff
  gads gaffs
gulled gulf 
handle handful
hard half 
hardback halfback 
  hardbacks halfbacks 
hard-baked half-baked 
header heifer
  headers heifers
id if
inedible ineffable
lard laugh
  larding laughing
lead leaf
  leading leafing
lied life
limbed lymph
liquefies liquidize
load loaf
  loading loafing
  loads loafs
loader loafer
  loaders loafers
lode loaf
mud muff
muddle muffle
  muddled muffled
  muddles muffles
  muddling muffling
odd off
odder offer
ode oaf 
  odes oafs
odysseys offices
owed oaf
Phil dill
piddle piffle
  piddled piffled
  piddles piffles
  piddling piffling
predatory prefatory
produce profuse
prod Prof 
prude proof 
quad quaff
  quads quaffs
quid quiff
  quids quiffs
raddle raffle
  raddled raffled
  raddles raffles
radish raffish
read reef
  reads reefs
read ref
reader reefer
  readers reefers
  reading reefing
  reads reefs
reed reef
  reeds reefs
rid riff
  rids riffs
riddle riffle
  riddled riffled
  riddles riffles
  riddling riffling
ride rife
rood roof
rood-tree roof-tree
  rood-trees roof-trees
rudder rougher 
ruddle ruffle
  ruddled ruffled
  ruddles ruffles
  ruddling ruffling
Ryde rife
sadist safest
soldered Salford 
scarred scarf 
scud scuff
  scudding scuffing
  scuds scuffs
surd serf 
serried serif 
she'd sheaf
shelled shelf 
skid skiff
soda sofa  
  sodas sofas
sodden soften
starred staff 
standard Stanford 
stone-dead stone-deaf
stride strife
stud stuff
  studding stuffing
  studs stuffs
study stuffy
tarried tariff
toddy toffee
  toddies toffees
trod trough
turd turf
waddle waffle
  waddled waffled
  waddles waffles
  waddling waffling
wade waif	
  wades waifs
wader wafer
  waders wafers
ward wharf
weighed waif
who'd hoof 
wide wife
widely wifely
wooed woof

John Higgins, Shaftesbury, February 2010
updated Chiang Mai, 2024