The /d/ sound is spelled with <d>, <de> or <dd>. The /ʤ/ sound is usually spelled with <ge>, <dge> or <j>, and we also see the assimilated <deu>in grandeur. A number of pairs contrast an -ed inflection with an -age derivation as in appended/appendage. Notice how the homograph lead makes pairs with ledge and liege, and similarly do with Jew and Joe.
The contrast is between a stop and an affricate, both voiced and close together in the mouth. Surprisingly it is not a problem for learners.
Interesting pairs include:
The mean density value is 1.8%. The list makes 136 semantic distinctions, a loading of 64%.
added adage addenda agenda aid age aided aged aiding ageing Andy Angie appended appendage arraigned arrange baa'd barge bad badge banded bandage bandeau banjo bandeaux banjoes bard barge barred barge beldam Belgium billed bilge bonded bondage bud budge budding budging buddy budgie buddies budges cad cadge caddies cadges carried carriage carted cartage chained change Chard charge charred charge corded cordage curried courage D G D's G's dab jab dabbed jabbed dabbing jabbing dabs jabs dale gaol dales gaols dam jam dammed jammed damming jamming dams jambs dames James damn jam damned jammed damning jamming damns jambs Dan Jan Dane Jane dangle jangle dangled jangled dangles jangles dangling jangling daunt jaunt daunted jaunted daunting jaunting daunts jaunts daw jaw daws jaws day J days J's deaf Geoff dean Jean deans jeans dear jeer dears jeers debt jet debts jets Delhi jelly dell gel dells gels den gen dens gens Denny Jenny dent gent dents gents dental gentle dibber gibber dibbers gibbers dig jig digging jigging digs jigs digger jigger diggers jiggers dill Gill dims gyms din djinn dins djinns din gin dins gins dinned ginned dinning ginning dingle jingle dingles jingles dip gyp dipped gypped dipping gypping dips gyps dirk jerk dirks jerks dive jive dived jived dives jives diving jiving do Jew do's Jews do Joe dodder dodger dodders dodgers dog jog dogged jogged dogging jogging dogs jogs dolly jolly dollies jollies dolt jolt dolts jolts Don John door jaw doors jaws doss joss dosses josses doss-house joss-house doss-houses joss-houses dost just dust just dot jot dots jots dotted jotted dotting jotting doted dotage Doug jug doughy Joey doused joust dread dredge dreading dredging drifted driftage dug jug dugs jugs dump jump dumped jumped dumping jumping dumps jumps dumper jumper dumpers jumpers dumpy jumpy dumpier jumpier dumpiest jumpiest dunk junk dunks junks Ed edge Eddie edgy eddy edgy eddies edges erred urge footed footage forehead forage ford forge fording forging fronted frontage gaud gorge gaudies gorges grained grange grander grandeur head hedge heading hedging hewed huge intermarried intermarriage jawed George languid language lard large larder larger lead ledge lead liege mad Madge marred marge married marriage murder merger murders mergers mid midge middies midges miscarried miscarriage paid page pled pledge plunder plunger plunders plungers ported portage posted postage potted pottage poundedpoundage purred purge RADA rajah raid rage raiding raging rained range read Reg remarried remarriage rid ridge ridding ridging rudely Rugeley said sedge screwed Scrooge shorted shortage sinned singe sled sledge staid stage storeyed storage strained strange surd serge surd surge twinned twinge vested vestige wade wage wading waging wader wager waders wagers wanted Wantage wasted wastage wed wedge wedding wedging
John Higgins, Shaftesbury, April 2010.