Consonants /d/ versus /ʤ/, 211 pairs     [dotjot.html]

The /d/ sound is spelled with <d>, <de> or <dd>. The /ʤ/ sound is usually spelled with <ge>, <dge> or <j>, and we also see the assimilated <deu>in grandeur. A number of pairs contrast an -ed inflection with an -age derivation as in appended/appendage. Notice how the homograph lead makes pairs with ledge and liege, and similarly do with Jew and Joe.

The contrast is between a stop and an affricate, both voiced and close together in the mouth. Surprisingly it is not a problem for learners.

Interesting pairs include:

addenda agenda
curried courage
Delhi jelly
dental gentle
forehead forage
languid language

The mean density value is 1.8%. The list makes 136 semantic distinctions, a loading of 64%.

added adage 
addenda agenda
aid age 
  aided aged 
  aiding ageing 
Andy Angie
appended appendage 
arraigned arrange
baa'd barge
bad badge
banded bandage 
bandeau banjo
  bandeaux banjoes
bard barge
barred barge
beldam Belgium 
billed bilge 
bonded bondage 
bud budge
  budding budging
buddy budgie
buddies budges
cad cadge
caddies cadges
carried carriage 
carted cartage 
chained change
Chard charge
charred charge
corded cordage 
curried courage 
  D's G's
dab jab
  dabbed jabbed
  dabbing jabbing
  dabs jabs
dale gaol
  dales gaols
dam jam
  dammed jammed
  damming jamming
  dams jambs
dames James 
damn jam
  damned jammed
  damning jamming
  damns jambs
Dan Jan
Dane Jane
dangle jangle
  dangled jangled
  dangles jangles
  dangling jangling
daunt jaunt
  daunted jaunted
  daunting jaunting
  daunts jaunts
daw jaw
  daws jaws
day J 
  days J's 
deaf Geoff 
dean Jean
deans jeans
dear jeer
  dears jeers
debt jet
  debts jets
Delhi jelly
dell gel
  dells gels
den gen
  dens gens
Denny Jenny
dent gent
  dents gents
dental gentle
dibber gibber
  dibbers gibbers
dig jig
  digging jigging
  digs jigs
digger jigger
  diggers jiggers
dill Gill 
dims gyms
din djinn
  dins djinns
din gin
  dins gins
  dinned ginned
  dinning ginning
dingle jingle
  dingles jingles
dip gyp
  dipped gypped
  dipping gypping
  dips gyps
dirk jerk
  dirks jerks
dive jive
  dived jived
  dives jives
  diving jiving
do Jew 
  do's Jews 
do Joe 
dodder dodger
  dodders dodgers
dog jog
  dogged jogged
  dogging jogging
  dogs jogs
dolly jolly
  dollies jollies
dolt jolt
  dolts jolts
Don John
door jaw
  doors jaws
doss joss
  dosses josses
doss-house joss-house
  doss-houses joss-houses
dost just
dust just
dot jot
  dots jots
  dotted jotted
  dotting jotting
doted dotage 
Doug jug
doughy Joey 
doused joust
dread dredge
  dreading dredging
drifted driftage 
dug jug
  dugs jugs
dump jump
  dumped jumped
  dumping jumping
  dumps jumps
dumper jumper
  dumpers jumpers
dumpy jumpy
  dumpier jumpier
  dumpiest jumpiest
dunk junk
  dunks junks
Ed edge
Eddie edgy
eddy edgy
eddies edges
erred urge
footed footage 
forehead forage 
ford forge
  fording forging
fronted frontage 
gaud gorge
gaudies gorges
grained grange
grander grandeur
head hedge
  heading hedging
hewed huge
intermarried intermarriage 
jawed George 
languid language 
lard large
larder larger
lead ledge
lead liege
mad Madge 
marred marge 
married marriage 
murder merger 
  murders mergers 
mid midge
middies midges
miscarried miscarriage 
paid page 
pled pledge
plunder plunger
  plunders plungers
ported portage
posted postage 
potted pottage 
purred purge 
RADA rajah
raid rage 
  raiding raging 
rained range
read Reg 
remarried remarriage 
rid ridge
  ridding ridging
rudely Rugeley 
said sedge
screwed Scrooge 
shorted shortage 
sinned singe 
sled sledge
staid stage 
storeyed storage 
strained strange
surd serge 
surd surge
twinned twinge 
vested vestige
wade wage
  wading waging
wader wager
  waders wagers
wanted Wantage 
wasted wastage 
wed wedge
  wedding wedging

John Higgins, Shaftesbury, April 2010
updated Chiang Mai, 2024