Consonants /h/ versus /ʤ/, 112 pairs     [humpjump.html]

The /h/ sound is spelled with <h> or <wh> in whose. The /ʤ/ sound is spelled with <j> or <g> before <e> or <y> in gym and exceptionally before <a> in gaol.

This is a contrast between a voiceless glottal fricative and a voiced alveolar affricate, only occurring in syllable-initial position. Although the /h/ can be difficult for some learners, the contrast is not a problem.

Interesting pairs include:

heinous Janus
herald Gerald

The mean density value is 3%. The lists make 59 semantic distinctions, a loading of 53%.

hack jack 
  hacked jacked
  hacking jacking
  hacks jacks
hag jag
  hags jags
Hagen jargon
hail gaol 
  hailed gaoled 
  hails gaols 
  hailing gaoling
hake Jake 
hale gaol
ham jam
  hammed jammed
  hamming jamming
  hams jams
ham jamb
  hams jambs  
hard jarred
Harrow Jarrow
has jazz
haunt jaunt
  haunted jaunted
  haunting jaunting
  haunts jaunts
haw jaw
  hawed jawed
  hawing jawing
  haws jaws
hay J 
Hayling gaoling
haze J's 
he G 
hear jeer
  hearing jeering
  hears jeers
heinous Janus 
held gelled 
hell gel 
  hells gels 
hem gem 
  hemmed gemmed 
  hems gems 
he-man G-man 
  he-men G-men 
hen gen 
  hens gens 
herald Gerald 
hilt jilt
  hilts jilts
him gym
him Jim 
hissed gist 
hive jive
  hived jived
  hives jives
  hiving jiving
ho Joe
hoar jaw
hoe Joe
hoax jokes
hob job
  hobs jobs
hockey jockey
hog jog
  hogged jogged
  hogging jogging
  hogs jogs
hoist joist
  hoists joists
holly jolly
Hon John
hone Joan 
Hoo Jew
hoot jute
hot jot
  hots jots
  hotted jotted
  hotting jotting
hotter jotter
houri jury
  houris juries
hove Jove
howl jowl
  howls jowls
hug jug
  hugged jugged
  hugging jugging
  hugs jugs
humble jumble
  humbled jumbled
  humbles jumbles
  humbling jumbling
hump jump
  humped jumped
  humping jumping
  humps jumps
hunk junk
  hunks junks
hunter junta
  hunters juntas
hut jut
  huts juts
  hutted jutted
hymn gym
  hymns gyms 	  
hymn Jim  
who Jew
whore jaw
  whores jaws
whose Jews 

John Higgins, Shaftesbury, December 2010
updated Chiang Mai, 2024